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Chancroid Diagnosis Procedures



Chancroid Diagnosis Procedures
In most of the cases, the clinical diagnosis for chancroid is mostly based on the appearance of ulcers in the genital areas which also happen to be prominent symptoms in other STDs like syphilis. Hence, for chancroid diagnosis, culturing the bacterium - Haemophilus ducreyi has been acknowledged as an accurate method to confirm the symptoms. This basically helps in understanding the characteristics of the bacteria and how it is responsible for the cause of chancroid. Culturing Haemophilus ducreyi is an elaborate process that requires an expensive nutritive base to grow the bacterium. These bacteria grow best in a humid temperature of 33ºC in an atmosphere containing 5% carbon dioxide. So based on the culturing conditions for Haemophilus ducreyi, the chancroid diagnosis for this sexually transmitted disease is carried out by following ways:
Microscopic Examination of the Ulcer Smear: Calcium alginate swabs are used to collect smears of the ulcerations. These swabs are then put into a mixture of chocolate agar, isovitalex (1%) and vancomycin. After a period of 2 days, under controlled humid conditions with 10% carbon dioxide, appearance of colonies of this bacterium can be seen. This is the apt time to start with the chancroid diagnosis.
Gram Stain: Here the sensitivity of the culture is maintained between 10-90%. A school of small pleomorphic gram negative bacterium are cultured by this process for chancroid diagnosis.
Culture: Culturing this bacterium is difficult as the environment suiting the growth of this bacterium is not always available. The sensitivity is kept at 75% if the this bacterium is to be grown in a special culture medium.
Modern antigen detection techniques such as immnuofluorescence, radio isotopic procedures are also used in chancroid diagnosis. Amplification techniques like detection of nucleic acid (DNA) is gaining more popularity in chancroid diagnosis as it exhibits 95% sensitivity to a culture sample.

Chancroid Diagnosis Treatment
There is no specific procedure of blood tests for prognosis of chancroid. Chancroid treatment immediately starts once the ulcers are observed in the genital areas. Chancroid is treated well with antibiotics. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and erythromycin are the types of antibiotics recommended post chancroid diagnosis. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) recommends an oral dosage of azithromycin (1 gm)/ceftriaxone (1 M) for a week. Local surgeries are done to subdue the enlarged lymph nodes and drain them before they get infected with the bacteria. In most cases, chancroid diagnosis and treatment also speculates the possibility of other genital ulcerative diseases such as Genital herpes (HSV - herpes simplex virus), donovanosis, treponema pallidum (Cause of syphilis) and LGV(Lymphogranuloma venereum). In situations, where there is inflammation in lymph nodes, biopsy is advised to check for the possibility of neoplasia (growth of lumps).

Chancroid Prevention Measures
Chancroid can be prevented by taking some precautionary measures:
Men are advised to use latex condoms while indulging in sexual activities like vagina, oral or anal sex.
Water based spermicides are advised to be used specially for vaginal intercourse though there aren't any concrete facts illustrating its effectiveness.
Men and women are both advised to contain themselves in mutual monogamy to prevent any chances of getting affected by an infected partner.
Chancroid is definitely a painful ailment at times leading to severe groin pain. Once clear about the symptoms, one should also be aware of where to get tested for STDs. With the above stated measures, such afflictions can definitely be prevented. After all, prevention is better than cure. I hope the above article on chancroid diagnosis was informative.