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Premature ejaculation



Premature ejaculation
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a condition in which a man ejaculates earlier than he or his partner would like him to. Premature ejaculation is also known as rapid ejaculation, rapid climax, premature climax, or early ejaculation. Masters and Johnson defines PE as the condition in which a man ejaculates before his sex partner achieves orgasm, in more than fifty percent of their sexual encounters.
Other sex researchers have defined premature ejaculation as occurring if the man ejaculates within two minutes of penetration; however, a survey by Alfred Kinsey in the 1950s demonstrated that three quarters of men ejaculate within two minutes of penetration in over half of their sexual encounters.[citation needed] Self reported surveys report up to 75% of men ejaculate within 10 minutes of penetration. Today, most sex therapists understand premature ejaculation as occurring when a lack of ejaculatory control interferes with sexual or emotional well-being in one or both partners.
Most men experience premature ejaculation at least once in their lives. PE affects 25%-40% of men in the United States. Because there is great variability in both how long it takes men to ejaculate and how long both partners want sex to last, researchers have begun to form a quantitative definition of premature ejaculation. Current evidence supports an average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of six and a half minutes in 18-30 year olds.If the disorder is defined as an IELT percentile below 2.5, then premature ejaculation could be suggested by an IELT of less than about 2 minutes. Nevertheless, it is well accepted that men with IELTs below 1.5 minutes could be "happy" with their performance and do not report a lack of control and therefore would not be defined as having PE. On the other hand, a man with 2 minutes IELT may have the perception of poor control over his ejaculation, distressed about his condition, has interpersonal difficulties and therefore be diagnosed with PE.
Contents
1 Possible psychological and environmental factors
2 Possible physical factors
2.1 Mechanism of ejaculation
2.2 Differential diagnosis
2.3 Other ejaculation disorder types
3 Treatment
4 Management
5 References
6 External links
Possible psychological and environmental factors

Psychological factors commonly contribute to premature ejaculation. While men sometimes underestimate the relationship between sexual performance and emotional well-being, premature ejaculation can be caused by temporary depression, stress over financial matters, unrealistic expectations about performance, a history of sexual repression, or an overall lack of confidence. Interpersonal dynamics strongly contribute to sexual function, and premature ejaculation can be caused by a lack of communication between partners, hurt feelings, or unresolved conflicts that interfere with the ability to achieve emotional intimacy. Neurological premature ejaculation can also lead to other forms of sexual dysfunction, or intensify the existing problem, by creating performance anxiety. In a less pathological context, premature ejaculation could also be caused simply by extreme arousal.
According to the theories developed by Wilhelm Reich, premature ejaculation may be a consequence of a stasis of sexual energy in the pelvic musculature, which prevents the diffusion of such energy to other parts of the body
One study of young married couples (Tullberg, 1999) reported that the husband's IELT seems to be affected by the phases of the wife's menstrual cycle, the IELT tending to be shortest during the fertile phase. Other studies suggest that young men with older female partners reach the ejaculatory threshold sooner, on average, than those whose partners are their own age or younger
[edit]Possible physical factors

[Mechanism of ejaculation
The physical process of ejaculation requires two sequential actions: emission and expulsion.


Mechanism of Ejaculation
The emission phase is the first phase. It involves deposition of seminal fluid from the ampullary vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland into the posterior urethra. The second phase is the expulsion phase. It involves closure of bladder neck, followed by the rhythmic contractions of the urethra by pelvic-perineal and bulbospongiosus muscle, and intermittent relaxation of external urethral sphincters
It is believed that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT) plays a central role in modulating ejaculation. Several animal studies have demonstrated its inhibitory effect on ejaculation. Therefore, it is perceived that low level of serotonin in the synaptic cleft in these specific areas in the brain could cause premature ejaculation. This theory is further supported by the proven effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase serotonin level in the synapse, in treating PE.
Sympathetic motor neurons control the emission phase of ejaculation reflex, and expulsion phase is executed by somatic and autonomic motor neurons. These motor neurons are located in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spinal cord and are activated in a coordinated manner when sufficient sensory input to reach the ejaculatory threshold has entered the central nervous system.
Several areas in the brain, and especially the nucleus paragigantocellularis, have been identified to be involved in ejaculatory control.[9] Scientists have long suspected a genetic link to certain forms of premature ejaculation. In one study, ninety-one percent of men who have had premature ejaculation for their entire lives also had a first-relative with lifelong premature ejaculation. Other researchers have noted that men who have premature ejaculation have a faster neurological response in the pelvic muscles. Simple exercises commonly suggested by sex therapists can significantly improve ejaculatory control for men with premature ejaculation caused by neurological factors[citation needed]. Often, these men may benefit from anti-anxiety medication or SSRIs, such as sertraline or paroxetine, as these slow down ejaculation times . Some men prefer using anaesthetic creams; however, these creams may also deaden sensations in the man's partner, and are not generally recommended by sex therapists.
[edit]Differential diagnosis
Premature ejaculation should be distinguished from erectile dysfunction related to the development of a general medical condition. Some individuals with erectile dysfunction may omit their usual strategies for delaying orgasm. Others require prolonged noncoital stimulation to develop a degree of erection sufficient for intromission. In such individuals, sexual arousal may be so high that ejaculation occurs immediately. Occasional problems with premature ejaculation that are not persistent or recurrent or are not accompanied by marked distress or interpersonal difficulty do not qualify for the diagnosis of premature ejaculation. The clinician should also take into account the individual's age, overall sexual experience, recent sexual activity, and the novelty of the partner. When problems with premature ejaculation are due exclusively to substance use (e.g., opioid withdrawal), a substance-induced sexual dysfunction can be diagnosed.