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How is Peyronie’s disease evaluated?



How is Peyronie’s disease evaluated?
Doctors can usually diagnose Peyronie’s disease based on a physical examination. The plaque can be felt when the penis is limp. Full evaluation, however, may require examination during erection to determine the severity of the deformity. The erection may be induced by injecting medicine into the penis or through self-stimulation. Some patients may eliminate the need to induce an erection in the doctor’s office by taking a digital or Polaroid picture at home. The examination may include an ultrasound scan of the penis to pinpoint the location(s) and calcification of the plaque. The ultrasound can also be used to evaluate blood flow into and out of the penis if there is a concern about erectile dysfunction.
Men with Peyronie’s disease usually seek medical attention because of painful erections, penile deformity, or difficulty with intercourse. Because the cause of Peyronie’s disease and its development are not well understood, doctors treat the disease empirically; that is, they prescribe and continue methods that seem to help. The goal of therapy is to restore and maintain the ability to have intercourse. Providing education about the disease and its course often is all that is required. No strong evidence shows that any treatment other than surgery is universally effective. Experts usually recommend surgery only in long-term cases in which the disease is stabilized and the deformity prevents intercourse.
Because the course of Peyronie’s disease is different in each patient and because some patients experience improvement without treatment, medical experts suggest waiting 1 year or longer before having surgery. During that wait, patients often are willing to undergo treatments whose effectiveness has not been proven.
Medical Treatments
Researchers conducted small-scale studies in which men with Peyronie’s disease who were given vitamin E orally reported improvements. Yet, no controlled studies have established the effectiveness of vitamin E therapy. Similar inconclusive success has been attributed to aminobenzoate potassium (Potaba). Other oral medications that have been used include colchicine, tamoxifen, and pentoxifylline. Again, no controlled studies have been conducted on these medications.
Researchers have also tried injecting chemical agents such as verapamil, collagenase, steroids, and interferon alpha-2b directly into the plaques. Verapamil and interferon alpha-2b seem to diminish curvature of the penis. The other injectable agent, collagenase, is undergoing clinical trial and results are not yet available. Steroids, such as cortisone, have produced unwanted side effects, such as the atrophy or death of healthy tissues. Another intervention involves iontophoresis, the use of a painless current of electricity to deliver verapamil or some other agent under the skin into the plaque.
Radiation therapy, in which high-energy rays are aimed at the plaque, has also been used. Like some of the chemical treatments, radiation appears to reduce pain, but it has no effect on the plaque itself and can cause unwelcome side effects such as erectile dysfunction. Although the variety of agents and methods used points to the lack of a proven treatment, new insights into the wound healing process may one day yield more effective therapies.
Surgery
Three surgical procedures for Peyronie’s disease have had some success. One procedure involves removing or cutting of the plaque and attaching a patch of skin, vein, or material made from animal organs. This method may straighten the penis and restore some lost length from Peyronie’s disease. However, some patients may experience numbness of the penis and loss of erectile function.
A second procedure, called plication, involves removing or pinching a piece of the tunica albuginea from the side of the penis opposite the plaque, which cancels out the bending effect. This method is less likely to cause numbness or erectile dysfunction, but it cannot restore length or girth of the penis.
A third surgical option is to implant a device that increases rigidity of the penis. In some cases, an implant alone will straighten the penis adequately. If the implant alone does not straighten the penis, implantation is combined with one of the other two surgical procedures.
Most types of surgery produce positive results. But because complications can occur, and because many of the effects of Peyronie’s disease-for example, shortening of the penis-are not usually corrected by surgery, most doctors prefer to perform surgery only on the small number of men with curvature severe enough to prevent sexual intercourse.